Интересное про ППЗУ история развития

First UV EPROMs of the Soviet Union.

Куплю ППЗУ для музея... и другие микросхемы.

Статья про ППЗУ, автор Владимир, Москва, статья in Russian

First UV EPROMs of the Soviet Union.

In 1971 Intel came out with the first memory that could be not only programmed by the user, but could be erased with UV light and programmed again. This was the 1702 EPROM. It was 2048 bits (256x8), used PMOS, required three voltage (+5V, +12V and -12V) to operate, and each data line required a strobed -48V pulse for programming.
The 1702 was introduced to the world in the May 10, 1971 issue of Electronics Magazine in an article written by Dov Frohman, the inventor of the EPROM.


The first EPROM chip produced in the Soviet Union was K505RR1, developed by the Kyiv Research Institute of Microdevices and manufactured by the Kvazar factory in Kyiv, Ukraine. The chip is a 2048-bit (256x8) electrically programmable read-only memory with ultraviolet erasure. Analogue of the 1702А.

Первой микросхемой ППЗУ, произведенной в Советском Союзе, была К505РР1

Up to 20 overwrite cycles, information storage period in on state is not less 5000 hours.
This is the only EPROM chip manufactured in this package.


Analogue of the i2708. The microcircuit is a read-only memory device with a capacity of 8 Kbit (1024х8). Supply voltage 12v, 5v, -5v. Information storage period in on state is not less 15000 hours. Number of write cycles at least 100.
Microcircuits were manufactured at two factories: Novosibirsk Factory Vostok and Novosibirsk Electrovakuum Factory (NEVZ). The third logo is an export version.

NEVZ NEVZ military grade Vostok Export version (without letter K + rhombus)

К573РФ1 аналог 2708

On microcircuits with a metal cover, you can see that a part of the conductor connecting this cover and GND pin has been mechanically removed. In electrochemical coating, it's necessary that all surfaces on which gold is deposited in this case be connected to each other. But the K573RF1 chip has three power supplies. And minus 5 volts is applied to the die substrate. Part of the conductor has been removed to avoid a possible short circuit.

Хорошо видно, что кристалл К573РФ1 разделен на два блока памяти.

It's clearly seen that the die of K573RF1 is divided into two memory blocks.

К573РФ11, К573РФ12 имеют информационную емкость 4 Кбит (512х8), К573РФ13, К573РФ14- 4 Кбит (1024х4).

In the manufacture of dies, it happens that several memory cells turn out to be damaged. The manufacturer blocks access to damaged part of the die by connecting one or two input addresses to ground or a power supply. Either guarantees the operation of only half of the data bus of the microcircuit. K573RF11, K573RF12 have an information capacity of 4 Kbit (512x8) , K573RF13, K573RF14- 4 Kbit (1024x4).


Analog of the i2716 with capacity of 16 Kbit (2024х8). Supply voltage +5v. Information storage period in on state is not less 25000 hours. Number of write cycles at least 100.
Initially, microcircuits were produced in white ceramic packages, the same as those of the K573RF1. Only the need to remove part of the conductor was no longer there. The die's substrate was now connected to ground.

Many microcircuits were produced with the State Quality Mark of the USSR.
You can read more about this here: https://www.cpushack.com/2014/04/22/soviet-k573rf23-quality-mark-cccp/

On some microcircuits, you can see the abbreviation OTK. This is the mark of the Technical Control Department.
In economy of the Soviet Union, Technical Control Departments (Russian: OTK) were and are in charge of quality assurance of production. In the late Soviet Union the OTK existed in all socialist enterprises.

С датой производства и без

Manufacturing factories are the same that produced K573RF1. Only in the early 90s did a new manufacturer appear. Research and Production Cooperative "KVANT" (Latvia).

Часть К573РФ2 выпускалась без логотипа производителя.

With and without production date

Part of the K573RF2 was produced without the manufacturer's logo.

микросхемы К573РФ2 половинной емкости

Also, as in the case of K573RF1, there were half-capacity K573RF2 chips. K573RF11, K573RF12 have an information capacity of 8 Kbit (1024x8) , K573RF13, K573RF14- 8 Kbit (2048x4).

Кристалл K573RF2 сильно отличается от кристалла K573RF1. Теперь у него единое поле ячеек памяти.

The K573RF2 die is very different from the K573RF1 die. Now it has a single field of memory cells.


By the end of the eighties, 573RF2 microcircuits appeared in ceramic packages in terracotta shades. The package consists of two halves connected by a compound.

кс572рф2 - серая керамика ППЗУ СССР 2 килобайта

Together with the advent of these packages, leapfrog with marking begins. Initially, microcircuits had the letter M in their name ( KM573RF2). After some time, the letter M was replaced by the letter S (Russian C).

Эти микросхемы имеют маркировку КС573РТ2.

These chips are marked KS573RT2. Unusually, the letter combination RT refers to one-time programmable memory chips. Other companies, for example Mostek, also resorted to painting over part of the surface of the microcircuit with subsequent re-marking.

кс573рф2 куплю много

K573RF2, not KM, not KS. The thing is that the top of microcircuit is made of brown ceramics, and the bottom is made of white. The oddity lies in the fact that the resulting "sandwich" has the State Quality Mark.

 кр573рф2 в пластике куплю прошью

Well, the last chip of this series. In plastic package. The window for erasing is quite small.


Microcircuits of this series are fully compatible with microcircuits of RF2 series. They were made in other factories. All chips in ceramic packages were manufactured at the Kvazar factory in Kyiv.

к573рф5 куплю в розовой и белой керамике

Part of the chips was made without the factory logo.

Until 1988, there was a die, divided into two memory blocks. After that, a die with a completely different topology was installed.

куплю микросхемы к573рф2 к573рф5 в розовой керамике

At the end of the eighties, there was a transition to another type of package, similar to RF2 packages.

573RF5 microcircuits were also produced in plastic packages. Another manufacturer has been added to the Kvazar factory. KVADR factory, Chernihiv region, Ukraine.

I want to finish this article with a curious fact. It was also produced in a package with a quartz window. But the die was painted over with brown lacquer. It's impossible to erase it with ultraviolet light. Socialist economy had the planned nature. Maybe the factory was behind schedule on chip production. And this was the solution.

I express my gratitude to Andrey Perfiliev (Andrey_cpu) and Victor Fyodorov (Victor_F) for their assistance
in writing this article.
The pictures of the dies from the site radiopicture.listbb.ru
Photos of chips are partially taken from the site 155la3.ru, as well as from the Andrey Perfiliev and John Culver collections.

1. www.jmargolin.com/patents/eprom.htm
2. 155la3.ru

Статья про ППЗУ, автор Владимир, Москва, статья in Russian


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